My research is focused on the role of the institutional environment on the entrepreneurial activity, using institutional approach (North, 1990 and North, 2005; Scott, 1995) as theoretical framework. First, the influence of institutions (formal and informal; and regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive) on entrepreneurship is analyzed in different contexts (Research Stream 1). Second, the diversity in entrepreneurship is considered in light of the institutional perspective, distinguishing the specificities of different types of entrepreneurial activities, such as entrepreneurial universities, social entrepreneurship, immigrant entrepreneurship, intrapreneurship, etc. (Research Stream 2). Finally, the link between entrepreneurship and socio-economic performance is studied through the institutional lenses (Research Stream 3).
According to North (1990: 3) “institutions are the rules of the game in a society or, more formally, are the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction". Institutions can be either formal, such as constitutions, regulations or contracts, or informal, such as attitudes, values, norms of behavior and conventions. In line with Scott (1995: 33) "institutions are multifaceted systems incorporating symbolic systems -cognitive constructions and normative rules- and regulative processes carried out through and shaping social behavior. North (2005) also highlights the relevance of cognitive dimension concerning the individual decisions based on the their perceptions within an unstable institutional matrix. "Organizations and their entrepreneurs engage in purposive activity and in that role are the agents of, and shape the direction of, institutional change" (North, 1990: 73). However, the maximization of organization's objectives are conditioned by the institutional framework. Then, there is an interaction of entrepreneurs with institutions for the economic (and societal) performance over the time. In the entrepreneurship field, formal institutions are composed by legal institutions (e.g. procedures to create a company, new firm regulations, etc.) and informal institutions comprise socio-cultural institutions (e.g. favorable cultural values towards entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial spirit, fear of failure, legitimation of business activity, etc.). Also, in order to complement the institutional approach, if necessary, other theoretical perspectives are considered to explain entrepreneurship variations across countries at different levels of analysis (human capital -Becker, 1964-; resources -Barney, 1991-; dynamic capabilities -Teece et al., 1997-; entrepreneurship ecosystems -Isenberg, 2010-).
The methodology used is mainly quantitative, based on huge data bases Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), World Values Survey (WVS), Worldwide Governance Indicators -World Bank- (WGI), Doing Business -World Bank Global-, Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE), Heritage Foundation’s Economic Freedom Index, Human Development Report, Global Competitiveness Report -World Economic Forum-, International Monetary Fund (IMF) -World Economic Outlook-, etc.). Also, qualitative research has been developed based on case studies (Yin, 1984; and Eisenhardt, 1989); and system dynamics (Forrester and Senge, 1980; and Sterman, 2000) has been used in some papers.
RESEARCH STREAM 1: Institutions and entrepreneurial activity
1.1. Developing an institutional conceptual framework for the analysis of environmental factors to entrepreneurship. Reviewing the literature and proposing some methodological issues in entrepreneurship research:
-Institutional environment for entrepreneurship: one step further in the literature (work in progress).
1.2. Analyising the impact of institutions (formal and informal) on entrepreneurship:
1.3. Analysing the influence of institutional dimensions (regulative, cultural-cognitive and normative) on entrepreneurial activity:
-Institutional dimensions and entrepreneurial process: An international study (work in progress).
RESEARCH STREAM 2: Institutions and diversity in entrepreneurship
2.1. Researching on the creation and development of entrepreneurial universities from an institutional approach:
2.3. Analysing the diversity in entrepreneurship through institutional lenses:
RESEARCH STREAM 3: Institutions, entrepreneurship and socio-economic performance
3.1. Analysing the impact of entrepreneurial activity on socio-economic performance:
3.2. Analysing the influence of entrepreneurship on socio-economic performance, distinguishing by types of entrepreneurial activities:
3.3. Examining the relationship between institutions, entrepreneurial activity and socio-economic performance:
“For institutionalists who take economics to be a cultural science in the service of humanity” ALLAN G. GRUCHY
“The outcome of any serious research can only be to make two questions grow where only one grew before” THORSTEIN VEBLEN
"The important thing is not to stop questioning" ALBERT EINSTEIN